# 6 = Volume 2, Part 2 = July 1975
The SF of J.H. Rosny the Elder
While Wells and Verne are today considered the founders of modern SF, J.H.
Rosny Aîné (Rosny the Elder) remains virtually unknown, in spite of the fact
that he was a prominent figure in French literary life at the turn of the
century and produced a number of extremely interesting works in this genre. His
first tale, "Les Xipéhuz" (The Xipehuz) one of the most original
examples of early SF, was published in 1887, eight years before The Time
Machine, and he continued writing SF all his life (1866-1940—see the
appended list). However, his literary reputation declined sharply after his
death. Like Wells he was over-prolific, and the value of many of his novels is
very dubious. He made his name with the "prehistoric" novels—La
Guerre du feu (The Fire War, 1909) being the best known. All his other works
were ignored or forgotten. Much of his "realistic" fiction is nowadays
almost unreadable, and even his best works are not entirely free from prolixity,
maudlin sentimentality and awkward stylistic mannerisms. However, among the
books discarded by critics and readers alike were some excellent and very
original SF stories. The recent publication of a collection comprising the
finest of these1 points to a revival of interest in his SF work. In
spite of resemblances, he seems to have had no influence on Wells; on the other
hand, it is likely that Rosny's later work partly reflects the interest aroused
by French translations of Wells's SF. Unlike Wells, who was attracted by the
imaginative potentialities of biological evolution and by the workings of the
scientific mind considered as a means of triumphing over the waste in his
contemporary world, Rosny, though very interested in other forms of life, was
attracted not only by descriptive biology and ethnology but also by physics,
chemistry and astronomy. His main concern was less with the Wellsian
"mankind in the making" and more with possibilities of life in the
Rosny was born in Belgium, but after a visit to England pursued his
uneventful career of a professional man of letters in Paris. He was first a
follower of Zola, whose influence he publicly repudiated in 1887, then a
respectable member of the "Académie Goncourt"—yet exceptionally
fascinated by the vistas science had opened up. His real name was Joseph Henri
Böex. He had a younger brother, Justin Böex, who was also a novelist, and both
used the same pen-name. Until 1892, Joseph Henri published his works under the
name of "J.H. Rosny"; then, between 1893 and 1907, this pseudonym was
used for books written by the two brothers in collaboration. This ended in 1907
when they decided to use the respective names of "J.H. Rosny Aîné"
and "J.H. Rosny Jeune." Thus, the works published in 1893-1907 and now
attributed to Rosny the Elder, were in fact written together with his brother;
however, the stylistic traits they have in common with those written earlier or
later show that Rosny the Elder was probably responsible for most of the
Rosny's SF can be divided into four categories which represent different
aspects of the same vision: (1) those dealing with wholly alien forms of life,
in the past or future of mankind or on other planets; (2) those dealing with
parallel worlds or unexplained natural beings and phenomena impinging on the
narrator's and original reader's present; (3) those based on the
"undiscovered island" pattern, in which the human protagonists
suddenly find themselves cut off from society and placed in an alien setting
which is presented as an autonomous world, though it does not have to be an
island in the geographical sense; (4) novels dealing with the life of man and
animals in prehistory.
I have excluded from this classification not only Rosny's
"realistic" books, but also stories and novels with fantastic themes
such as witchcraft, vampirism or doppelgängers. I have also left out works in
which an SF element appears only incidentally and is not central to their
development. Further, the question whether works describing adventures set in an
imaginary prehistory are SF remains, in Rosny's case, open. One finds in them
familiar SF themes, but the emphasis is largely on adventure for its own sake
and a sort of high-flown lyricism rather than on logical exploitation of the
situation created. In short, the cognitive element seems to have been made
largely subservient to the pleasures of escapism. Of course, some of his stories
are on the border-line where my categories overlap.
IN ROSNY'S FIRST STORY, "Les Xipéhuz," nomadic tribes in the land
that was to become Mesopotamia, the cradle of mankind, are confronted with
mysterious creatures shaped like translucent cones of living matter fraught with
magnetic energy. Their sudden appearance on Earth and proliferation threatens
the very existence of the human species. The Xipéhuz are living minerals and so
fundamentally different from men that no communication can ever be established
with them. Contrary to Wells's Martians, who are shown as a further development
in man's evolution, the Xipéhuz represent a form of life for which there is no
precedent or conceivable model in the human mind. Eventually the invaders are
annihilated due to the ingenuity of an exceptional man, Bakhoûn—an outsider
who refuses the accepted norms of society. Bakhoûn's life represents a more
advanced stage of human civilization, or conversely, it is reminiscent of Edenic
perfection—a comparison explicitly drawn by Rosny. A sedentary life, which he
shares with four wives and thirty children, enables him to devote all his energy
to intellectual pursuits.... Bakhoûn's reasonings rely on measurable data, and
he opposes the religion of his age by believing in a single God and emphasizing
wisdom as man's fundamental moral principle.
This first story reveals Rosny's constant assumptions that other forms of
life, of coherently organized energy, could coinhabit the universe without our
being aware of it, and that the man capable of coping with such problems is a
character harmoniously combining science, faith and art, a superman who shares
with a small elite of disciples the secrets of the universe.
In "La Mort de la Terre" (The Death of the Earth, 1910), Rosny
describes not the death of our planet but that of mankind. The Earth has
undergone tremendous geological changes, and when the story starts, 500
centuries in the future, there is an irreversible shortage of water. The few men
left have returned tor small independent communities in which the birth-rate is
deliberately kept very low. Posthistorical men have reinvented tribal life, but
as different from prehistory men now know that they are a doomed species, and
their behaviour is utterly passive: "The creature spirit has gone; it
reappears, atavistically, only in a few individuals. Through a selective
process, the race has acquired a spirit of automatic and therefore perfect
obedience to new immutable laws."2 Instead of human
consciousness and of the animal kingdom in general, the Earth now favours the
mineral kingdom. A new form of "ferromagnetic" life has arisen; it
will soon come into its own and supersede animal life. Symbolically, the last
man refuses euthanasia and lies on Earth where the minerals will cause his death
by anemia: "Then, humbly, some particles of the last human life entered the
New Life."3 The last men accept the new form of life which will
cause their extinction, but which also implies a mysterious design governing the
evolution of life.
This sense of a basic unity in the universe is a major motif in Rosny. It
reappears in the short novel Les Navigateurs de l'infini (The Navigators
of the Infinite, 1925),4 where estrangement is spatial rather than
temporal. Three Earthmen land on Mars which they find inhabited by creatures
whose shape is based on a ternary symmetry: the tripeds have six eyes, and they
reproduce by parthenogenesis. This enables Rosny to expatiate on the advantages
of a method which does away with the grossness and vulgarity of sex.... But the
Martians have reached the same stage of evolution as the men in "The Death
of the Earth": they are threatened by the "zoomorphs," a new form
of flat protoplasmic life, and have lost all creative spirit; it is the
Earthmen's technology and energy that wins the struggle against the alien
creatures and ensures the survival of the Martian tripeds. The main weakness of
the book lies in a love affair between the narrator and a female Martian triped;
it often verges on the ridiculous, but it also enables Rosny to suggest that our
aesthetic appreciation can be aroused by things or beings possessing no common
point with man. In the same way, the discovery on Mars of the Ethereals,
luminous networks of phosphorescent matter who are an entirely alien form of
life, appeals to the explorers' keen aesthetic sense. Men are not equipped to
fully understand this phenomenon, but they are filled with a sense of beauty and
wonder at the sight. All this is a consequence and proof of the mysterious
design and unity at work in the universe. The sense of a universe extending far
beyond our ordinary faculties of perception was probably the source of Rosny's
THE SECOND GROUP of stories and novels deals with strange (though not
supernatural) unexplained beings and phenomena. As Rosny explained in La
Force mysteriéuse (The Mysterious Power, 1913), the existence of parallel
worlds leaves two alternatives: either they constantly permeate our world and
are thus difficult to perceive since they do not disrupt the customary course of
things, or their interaction with us is only occasional and the collision of two
worlds gives rise to the most terrible catastrophes.
Two stories deal with the first alternative: "Un autre monde"
(Another World, 1895) and "Dans le monde des Variants" (In the World
of the Variants, 1939). In both, an exceptional individual living in our world
can perceive and exist in a different parallel universe too. In "Another
World" a young Dutchman, held for debile, is in fact born with an organism
geared to a different rhythm: he moves much faster than ordinary men, speaks so
quickly that his words have to be recorded and slowed down to become
understandable, and what is opaque to ordinary men is transparent to him and
vice versa. These peculiarities enable him to see a world populated by
mysterious beings entirely different from ourselves and living alongside us,
ignoring men and ignored by them, and yet modifying our environment as we modify
theirs. Here again Rosny is concerned with expanding imaginatively the limits of
our universe: our limited perception may be the only explanation for the
assumption that man is a superior creature and the focus of the whole world.
The same hypothesis is the basis of his short story "Le Cataclysme"
(The Catastrophe, 1888) and his novel The Mysterious Power. In both Rosny
exploits the theme of the Earth accidentally encountering an unknown source of
energy from outer space. In the short story a "stellar shower,"
falling on an isolated French tableland of peculiar bolide origins, modifying
the physical properties of matter and realizing thus an old popular prophecy, is
presented with remarkable imaginative power. The Mysterious Power is a
more elaborate use of the catastrophe theme: a mysterious zone of energy crosses
the trajectory of Earth and suddenly alters the properties of the light
spectrum. Chaos spreads over Earth, communications and industrial production
come to a halt. (Strangely enough, a few months after the publication of this
novel, Conan Doyle's The Poison Belt appeared in The Strand Magazine;
the similarities between the two works were so striking that in 1924 Rosny
suggested the possibility of plagiarism. However, the device was a familiar one:
it had been used by Verne in Hector Servadac, by Wells and by a number of
popular writers.) Rosny's novel works out the implications of this device
through neat scientific explanation. Unfortunately, it is marred by a
sentimental and melodramatic subplot, and also by the fact that the events are
seen from the point of view of another very unconvincing ideal scientist. This
stereotyped character, who reappears in many of his works, may be one of the
reasons for Rosny's lapse from literary fame.
THE IDEAL SCIENTIST plays a particularly important role in the
"undiscovered island" stories, where he is as a rule the
protagonist, and often also the narrator. The stories follow the same pattern:
an explorer discovers some hitherto unknown part of the globe, where he is made
to confront creatures whose existence calls into question some basic assumption
concerning mankind or reveals some hidden aspect of the human personality. The
observer is placed into a situation where social relationships are reduced to a
minimum, so that the impact of discovery falls on his isolated personality,
usually representative of what Rosny considered the best qualities of the human
A few examples will show the common characteristics of these discoveries. In
"Nymphée" (1893) the hero narrates how during an expedition to the
Far East he found a strange country of marshes, islands and caves inhabited by
several different tribes of "Men of the Water," human creatures
biologically adapted to their exceptional environment and representing the
living proof of the reality on which ancient legends were founded. Rosny devotes
several stories to variations on the physical shapes acquired by different types
of hominidae who, by some accident of nature, have been kept apart from the
development of the modern world. In "Les Profondeurs de Kyamo" (In the
Depths of Kyamo, 1896), the explorer Alglave—who reappears in several stories—finds
and aids giant gorillas in whom he recognizes the ancestors of man. Another
expedition takes him to a world of mysterious caves ("La Contrée
prodigiuese des cavernes"—The Prodigious Cave Country, 1896) where
strange animals live in a primitive society ruled by intelligent vampire-bats.
But the most significant stories may well be "Le Voyage" (The journey,
1900) and "Le Trésor dans le neige" (The Treasure in the Snow, 1922).
In the first one Rosny inverts a number of generally accepted notions concerning
biological evolution: in it primitive men are found living in friendship with
and subordination to elephants, whose decisions give an example of wisdom as
opposed to the murderous folly of men. Similarly, in "The Treasure in the
Snow" Alglave discovers, amidst barren expanses of polar ice, a temperate
oasis where a last family of primitive men has survived with the last mammoths.
He saves our ancestors from extinction, and conveys the survivors to North
Africa. There he creates a kind of prehistoric reservation where the virtues of
the first men are allied to the knowledge brought by divilization. At the end of
the story, a new miscegenated race is being created.
THIS SUMMARY of Rosny's main forms suggests the scope and originality of his
imagination. Although his thought is not systematic, the recurrence of patterns
and motifs points to certain ideological standpoints.
In 1899 Rosny published La Légende sceptique (The Skeptical Legend)
which he described as a "fictionalized essay." In this strange work,
of the family of Poe's Eureka, scientific concepts are blended with
passages of somewhat hazy lyrical mysticism in an attempt at a comprehensive
vision of creation and the development of life. It shows that, for Rosny,
science was essentially a means to an end situated beyond the realm of
knowledge, "a poetical passion."5 He proceeds from
subjective aesthetic appreciation considered as an absolute—hence his
insistence that beauty can be perceived independently of any reference to past
experience. His characters fall under the spell of Martian tripedettes or
prehistoric females regardless of the fact that such experiences are outside
known aesthetic enjoyment. Rosny assumed that there is such a thing as an innate
sense of the beautiful, and that it has a positive value. Thus aesthetics was
associated with ethics, because it reflected the individual's perception of the
mysterious great design at work in the universe. This personal, intimate
aesthetic reaction to the outside world is a way of achieving a direct knowledge
of reality, a cognitive process—which at first sight seems hardly reconcilable
with the rational demonstration of science. Yet Rosny saw no contradiction
between this blind faith in the direct apprehension of the universe and a
scientific knowledge of its multiform aspects which increased man's cosmic
sense. Scientific knowledge was neither an end in itself nor a means of
establishing Man's mastery over nature, it was simply another element increasing
our perception of the basic unity and mystery of creation. Thus, his SF did not
aim to create imaginary structures based on scientific hypotheses. It blended
the logical deductive process of scientific research with a vague meditation,
interspersed with daydreams on the mysterious nature of the universe. Rosny's
imagination apparently worked in two contrary and yet complementary directions:
on the one hand it expanded almost indefinitely, suggesting the possible
existence of boundless parallel worlds, survival and development of ancient
forms of life, or universal catastrophes due to unforeseen cosmic vagaries; on
the other hand, all these diverging elements were kept under control, and chaos
prevented, by a blind act of faith in the existence of a significant unifying
principle in the universe. This ideological conception manifests itself in the
recurrence of certain elements in Rosny's fiction. His main characters are
usually scientists cum philosophers cum priests cum poets: they are mystic
explorers of the unknown, always outside society, and little concerned with the
rest of mankind. Consequently, Rosny almost never achieves Wells's effect of
subversive estrangement due to the contrast between the unexpected and the norms
of the everyday world, and thus putting these norms into question. In Rosny's
work, the world of normality hardly ever appears, and when it does—as in
"Another World" or The Mysterious Power—it is populated by
brutish louts, bloodthirsty rabble, dumb but faithful servants, and other
stereotypes whose sole function is to exist as a foil to the protagonist. Only a
small élite approaches the sense of religious unity with the world, although it
is true that secular power is not their goal: when these supermen, thanks to
their knowledge and superior spiritual qualities, have saved the world, they
usually withdraw in splendid isolation after advising their less gifted brethren
to cultivate wisdom....
This attempt at reconciling the rational and the irrational con be explained
only if one realizes that Rosny's vision is permeated with the Edenic myth, i.e.
with nostalgia. for an imaginary period when the universe was characterized by
the organic union of opposite and contradictory elements. Or, to put it
differently, Rosny was fascinated by the notion of an ahistorical era, of a time
when the complexities of modern society were unknown, and in which brute
strength determined evolution. Hence the part played by prehistoric times in his
fiction: they provided him with a setting in which he could outline the concept
of a fundamental link uniting men and animals, and also express his ambivalent
response to primal urges.
Rosny's attitude toward love affords a revealing illustration of this
ambivalence. When one of his protagonists falls in love, the result is a series
of conventional sentimental scenes, but when one of the partners does not belong
to the ordinary, contemporary world the result is far more interesting. Rosny is
disgusted by and fascinated with sex, that competing principle of unity. In
"Les Hommes-sangliers" (The Wild-Boar Men, 1929) a Dutch girl is
captured by primitive boar-like men and repeatedly raped by their leader. She
reacts with shame and horror but also with fascination and sexual yearning; the
primeval instinctual urge which has thus been revealed makes a return to
civilized life appear as an intolerable anticlimax, and she commits suicide as
the only way out of her dilemma. This union of individuals belonging to
different species illustrates Rosny's interest in the possibility of creating
new beings that would reconcile apparently conflicting traits. Sympathetic
parthenogenesis—the reproductive system of Martians in The Navigators of
the Infinite—is an ideal because in it the biological urge is transmuted
into a perfect fusion of two selves. In "The Treasure in the Snow"
Alglave copulates with a prehistoric female, thus creating a race that will
unite the fundamental qualities of primitive life and the more sophisticated
knowledge of modern man.
Rosny always emphasizes unity: man is not the centre of the universe, but his
world may be intimately associated with other parallel worlds; primitive life
fills the modern observer with a sense of perfect harmony; Eden may not mean
peace but it certainly means a natural order of things. And science enables
modern man to see, beyond appearances, that the diversity of the world is but
part of its fundamental oneness. Scientific knowledge is the discovery, by logic
and deduction, of the fact hinted at by mythical and popular lore that life in
all its aspects springs from a basic unifying urge. Because it is a sort of
revelation, it has to be pursued in isolation, outside of the social and
This is why Rosny could equate science with poetic enthusiasm: like the
Romantic poets, the scientists worked toward the recreation of the lost original
oneness. Their function was religious since it led to a metaphysical
interpretation of the world and sprang from a subjective sense of wonder at the
spectacle of the universe. In a world in which God was dead, science was to take
over the role of traditional religion and show that there was a purpose—even
if not completely intelligible to man—in the universe. In the light of the
French literary scene at the end of the 19th Century, Rosny's work appears thus
as a reaction to naturalistic fiction and mechanical materialism, yet one that
does not return to a refurbished Roman Catholicism.
Rosny has largely been ignored by modern criticism because his best work is
contained in his SF (especially in the short stories). I am not suggesting that
his fiction has the same symbolic power as Wells's: his failure to refer to the
ordinary social scene of his day otherwise than through vapid abstraction does
much to undermine his artistic achievement. But his imagination was extremely
original, and his best stories are historically pioneering and still valuable
contributions to modern SF. In spite of the rather pseudo-romantic lyricism
which mars a good many of his descriptions, his conception of parallel worlds
inhabited by beings with whom no communication would ever be possible and the
way he inverted generally accepted notions on evolution remain, even today, a
Rosny had the misfortune of being a contemporary of both Verne and Wells, who
overshadowed his reputation. But there is no reason why the fate of his vision
should not parallel theirs. It is different but just as fascinating. His powers
were probably more uneven, but at his best he could certainly rival either.
1J.H. Rosny Aîné, Récits de science-fiction, edited by
J. Baronian with an introduction by J. Van Herp (Verviers: A Gérard-Marabout
1973); this is the best available collection of Rosny's stories.
2"La Mort de la Terre," in Récits (Note 1), p148 (my
4It was followed by a second part, Les Astronautes,
published posthumously (Paris: Rayon fantastique 1960).
5J.H. Rosny Aîné, Torches et lumignons (Paris 1921), p11.
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY. Only the SF stories and novels are mentioned. As they
were all published in Paris and, in the case of the short stories, frequently
reprinted in various collections, only the date of first publication is given.
Novels not discussed above are briefly characterized.
My thanks are due to M. Pierre Versins for indications about the secondary
bibliography. The following books by Rosny also contain useful material on him: Torches
et lumignons (2921), Les Sciences et le pluralisme (1922), Portraits
et souvenirs (1945, with biographical note by R. Borel).
*The stories marked by an asterisk appear in Récits (Note 1).
S1. H.P. Thieme. Bibliographie de la littérature francaise. Paris
1933. Volume 2, pp663-66, contains a fairly complete bibliography of works by
and on Rosny up to 1930.
#1. Les Xipéhuz.* 1887.
#2. Le Cataclysme.* 1888.
#3. La Legénde sceptique.* 1889. Essay.
#4. Vamireh. 1892. Prehistoric novel.
#5. Eyrimah. 1893. Prehistoric novel.
#6. Nymphée.* 1893.
#7. Un Autre Monde.* 1895.
#8. La Contrée prodigieuse des cavernes.* 1896.
#9. Les Profondeurs de Kyamo.* 1896.
#10. Le Voyage.* 1900.
#11. La Guerre du feu. 1909. Prehistoric novel.
#12. La Mort de la Terre.* 1910.
#13. La Force mystérieuse. 1913.
#14. Le Félin géant (The Giant Cat). 1918. Prehistoric novel.
#15. La Grande énigme. 1920. Another variation on the discovery of an
unknown land, in which the relationships between living beings are inverted,
thus calling into question man's place.
#16. Le Trésor dans la neige."* 1922.
#17. L'Etonnant voyage de Hareton Ironcastle. 1922. Mainly an
adventure in which the explorers discover that part of an alien planet, with its
fauna and flora, has become welded to Earth; the device is reminiscent of Verne.
#18. Les Navigateurs de l'infini.* 1925. For Part II see #24.
#19. Les Hommes-sangliers.* 1929.
#20. Helgvor de fleuve bleu (Helgvor of the Blue River). 1930.
#21. Les Compagnons de l'univers (Knights of the Universe). 1934. A
lengthy reflection on the mysteries not so much explained as revealed by
science; rather than a novel proper, it is in the line of #3, La Légende
#22. La Sauvage aventure (The Wild Adventure). 1935. A development of the
theme exploited in #19, "Les Hommes-sangliers" (The Wild-Boar Men).
#23. "Dans le monde des Variants.* 1939.
#24. Les Astronautes. 1960. Part II of the 1925 book—posthumous.
S2. J. Moog. "Un disciple de Zola," Nouvelle Revue
S3. R. Doumic. "Les romans de Rosny," Revue des Deux-Mondes
S4. Vernon Lee. "Rosny and the Analytical Novel in France," Cosmopolis
S5. G. Rodenbach. "Les Rosny," Nouvelle Revue 105(1897):289-96
S6. Zadig (pseud.). "J.H. Rosny," Revue Bleue 13(1900):533-35.
S7. M.A. Leblond. "L'épopée évolutionniste de l'énergie humaine."
Revue des Revues 46(1903):641-55.
S8. G. Casella. Les Célébrites d'aujourd'hui: J.H. Rosny. Biographie
critique. Paris 1907.
S9. M.C. Poinsot. "J.H. Rosny," Grande Revue 41(1907):449-59,
S10. J. Sageret. "La sociologie de Rosny Aîné, Revue du Mois
S11. C. Berton. "Souvenirs de la vie littéraire de J.H. Rosny," La
Vie des peuples 4(1921):385-95.
S12. J. d'Ivray. "Rosny Aîné," Revue des Revues
S13. J. Morel and P. Massé. "Rosny Aîné et la préhistoire," Mercure
de France 168(1923):5.
S14. J. Sageret. La Révolte philosophique et la science. Paris 1925.
S15. J. Morel. "Rosny Aîné et le merveilleux scientifique," Mercure
de France 187(1926):82.
S16. J.J. Bridenne. La Littérature francais d'imagination scientifique.
Paris 1950. Pp 191-98.
S17. J.J. Bridenne. "J.H. Rosny Aîné, romancier des possibles
cosmiques," Fiction, Feb. 1956.
S18. P. Domeyne. Le Merveilleux scientifique, ses sources et ses
prolongements dans les romans et nouvelles de J.H. Rosny Aîné. Diss. Lyon
Rosny has largely been ignored by modern criticism because
his best work is contained in his SF, especially his short stories. His work in SF can be
divided into four categories which represent different aspects of the same vision: stories
about alien life-forms during the future of mankind or on other planets; stories about
parallel worlds or unexplained natural beings and phenomena (these are often set in the
present); stories based on the "undiscovered island" pattern, in which
protagonists suddenly find themselves cut off from society and placed in a an alien
setting (not always literally an island, but always isolated); and, finally, stories set
in prehistory. I exclude from his SF not only Rosnys realistic books but also
stories and novels employing such fantastic motifs as witchcraft, vampirism, and
doppelgangers. Rosnys fiction lacks the symbolic power of Wells: his failure to
refer to the ordinary social scene of his day other than through vapid abstractions does
much to undermine his artistic achievement. But his imagination was extremely original and
his best stories are historically pioneering and still valuable. In spite of the
pseudo-romantic lyricism that mars his descriptions, his conceptions of parallel worlds
inhabited by beings with whom no communication will ever be possible, along with his
inversions of accepted notions of evolution, remain even today a considerable achievement.
Among the texts discussed are La Guerre du feu (1909), "Les Xipéhuz"
(1887), "La Mort de la Terre" (1910), "Nymphée (1893), "Le
Voyage" (1900), and "Le Trésor dans le neige" (1922). A select
bibliography of Rosnys writings concludes the essay.