The Paris of the 19th century, of Zola and the Impressionist painters was the city where the large-scale development of new methods of industry, finance, merchandising, government, and culture were given their most coherent concrete form. In the 20th century Berlin was at the center of, successively, German Expressionist painting, the European film industry, Nazism, and the Cold War. These two European capitals were at the intersection of individual personal experience and titanic historical forces. Close examination of painting, novels, film, architecture and urban planning, and the context within which they were produced. May count towards European Studies minor.