DePauw Style Guide
DePauw University Condensed Styleguide
The DePauw University Condensed Styleguide presents some specific writing style standards mainly for publications created for DePauw’s external audiences. Also included are examples of correct grammar and forms about which people often have questions. It is intended as a guideline for improving the clarity and consistency of University publications, not as a guideline for technical or academic writing. This styleguide is also useful in correspondence.
The basic reference for DePauw writing style is The Associated Press Stylebook. Final, authoritative dictionary reference is Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.
All DePauw publications have one thing in common – the reader/audience. Because of multiple mailings, it is possible for an individual reader to receive more than one DePauw publication in a short time – for example, the DePauw Magazine, an online newsletter and an alumni event brochure all in one week. If the writing style isn’t clear and consistent, the DePauw message is weakened. So, the Condensed Styleguide offers a basis upon which to create University writing, with clarity and consistency being the foundation. If the Styleguide does not provide the information you need, please contact the Publications Office.
Lower-case words are easier for the reader’s eye to follow. Prefer the lower case and the generic form. There needs to be a specific reason to capitalize a word, i.e., a proper noun, the first word of a sentence, etc.
•Use lower case, fall semester, spring semester, spring break, fall break
•Use B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
•Use lower case for bachelor’s, master’s or doctoral degree
•Use lower case for doctorate or doctoral program.
•Do not capitalize major areas of study unless the major includes a word that is normally capitalized. Example – Asian studies
•Capitalize formal office names. Example – Office of Alumni Relations.
•Use lower case for alumni office.
Board of Trustees
•Use upper case for DePauw Board of Trustees.
•Use lower case for a generic board of trustees.
•Official building names should be capitalized, e.g, East College; but not informal references, the science and math building.
•Do not abbreviate or shorten names of buildings, except in internal publications, e.g., UB, internally, but Memorial Student Union Building externally. (Consult University Directory for official building names.)
•Capitalize when referring to a class year, e.g., Class of 1975.
•Lower case commencement unless it is used as a part of a formal title.
•Capitalize formal names of committees, e.g., Committee on Student Affairs.
•Use lower case for a student affairs committee.
•Capitalize formal course titles, Psychology 101; but not a psychology course.
•Do not italicize course titles.
days of the week
Capitalize and write out days of the week in text: The paper was due Tuesday.
•Uppercase unless referring to a generic dean’s list.
directions and regions
•Lower case north, south, east and west when they indicate compass directions: They went north.
•Capitalize directions when they indicate regions: DePauw is in the Midwest.
grade point average
•Lower case in first reference, i.e., grade point average.
•Upper case GPA for alumni publications. Prefer generic terms such as A average or B student for general audiences that include those who are not familiar with the term.
historical periods and events
•The Middle Ages, Great Depression, Boston Tea Party
•Use italics: cum laude, magna cum laude, summa cum laude
majors and programs
•Academic majors are lower case, e.g., mathematics.
•Capitalize formal names of programs, e.g., Media Fellows Program.
•First-year student, sophomore, etc.
•Lower case a.m. and p.m. with periods and no spaces.
•When referring to noon or midnight, do not use a 12
•When referring to a time on the hour, no :00 is needed. Example – The seminar will be held from 8-11:30 a.m.
•Capitalize principal words of book titles, movies, plays, poems, operas, songs, radio and television programs, and works of art.
•Do not capitalize articles, conjunctions or prepositions in a title unless they are the first word.
•Prefer lower case titles following name: William J. Jones, professor of sociology.
•Capitalize titles that precede a person’s name, e.g., Professor of Sociology William J. Jones.
•Use Dr. only for medical doctors.
•Use DePauw University in first reference. In subsequent references use DePauw or uppercase University.
•When referring to universities in general, use the lower case.
•In sports stories and news headlines, DPU is acceptable.
words to capitalize
- DePauw (D and P always caps – no space between De and Pauw)
- Alumni Association Board of Directors
- Alumni Reunion Weekend
- Annual Fund
- Board of Visitors
- Board of Trustees
- Dean’s List
- Greek (fraternities and sororities)
- Honor Scholars
- Little 5
- Little Sibs’ Weekend
- Management Fellows
- Media Fellows
- Parents’ Executive Committee
- Science Research Fellows
- University (upper case when referring to DePauw, the University)
- Winter Term
•On academic degrees in general: “If mention of degrees is necessary to establish someone’s credentials, the preferred form is to avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase such as: John Jones, who has a doctorate in psychology, … ” (The AP Stylebook)
•“Use such abbreviations as B.A., M.A., LL.D. and Ph.D. only when the need to identify any individual by degree on first reference would make the preferred use cumbersome. Use these abbreviations only after a full name, never just after a last name. (The AP Stylebook)
DePauw (the word)
•The word “DePauw” is trademarked. Whether used with or without the word “University,” the word “DePauw” must be spelled accurately and consistently. When used in printed materials, the word “DePauw” should be spelled with a capital D and P, with no space between e and P; or it can be shown in all capital letters, e.g., DePauw: DEPAUW.
•Use DePauw University in first reference. In subsequent references, use DePauw or uppercase University.
•In sports stories and news headlines, DPU is acceptable. Do not use DU as an abbreviation.
Equity/Affirmative Action Statement
Affirmative Action, Civil Rights and Equal Employment Opportunity Policies
DePauw University, in affirmation of its commitment to excellence, endeavors to provide equal opportunity for all individuals in its hiring, promotion, compensation and admission procedures. Institutional decisions regarding hiring, promotion, compensation and admission will be based upon a person’s qualifications and/or performance without regard to race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, disability, age, gender, gender identity or gender expression, except where religion, gender, or national origin is a bona fide occupational qualification.
DePauw University’s goals and commitments are best served if the institution reflects the diversity of our society; hence, DePauw seeks diversity in all areas and levels of employment and abides by all local, state, and federal regulations concerning equal employment opportunities. The University admits, hires and promotes individuals upon their qualities and merits.
•Preferred spelling is adviser, not advisor.
•Affect means to influence. Effect is a result or consequence.
•Use an ampersand (&) only as part of an official name, not as a substitute for and, as in McDermond Center for Management & Entrepreneurship.
•Around means on all sides, or in a circle. About means an approximation.
•Beside is a preposition meaning near. Besides is an adverb meaning in addition.
•Use between when indicating a relationship of two individuals or entities; use among for more than two.
•Capital is a city that is a seat of government. Capitol is a building.
•Avoid the bureaucratic concerning and regarding. About and on are simpler and more direct.
Daylight Saving Time
•Not daylight savings time.
•Use Arabic figures to indicate decades: 1960s (Note no apostrophe before s). An apostrophe replaces the omitted figures in class year or decade. Example – Class of ’68; ’60s
•Entitle means a right to something. Title is the name of a book or other work.
•Not first come – first serve.
•Historic means important in history. Historical pertains to history or past events.
•i.e. (id est) means that is.
•e.g. (exempli gratia) means for example.
•Consider i.e. and e.g. as parenthetical elements and punctuate accordingly:
•In evaluating an IQ score, several factors, e.g., socioeconomic level, must be considered. (Words Into Type)
•One insures a house or car; ensure means to guarantee, such as ensuring results. With insurance, one aims to guarantee from loss or harm. In using ensure, one makes sure or certain.
•It’s is the contraction meaning it is.
•Its is the possessive case. Example – The squirrel went back to its home.
•Its’ is not a word in the English language.
•Use LIKE when indicating one entity is similar to another. Example – Like its larger counterpart, the state university, the liberal arts college offers undergraduate degrees.
•For a situation in which a specific example follows an abstract or generic description, use AS. Example –
Liberal arts colleges such as DePauw …
•Use lists and bulleted formats in both publications and correspondence. They break up text and are easy on the eye. Be sure to keep items parallel grammatically: Be consistent in choosing single words, complete sentences or phrases. The first word, in particular, should have a consistent grammatical form.
•If you lead into a list with a colon, the whole list constitutes a sentence, and you should punctuate appropriately Example – The box contained the following: apples, oranges, plums and bananas. If the list is bulleted, punctuation is not required unless bulleted items are complete sentences. Example – The box contained the following:
•Neither must be followed by nor, not or. Either is followed by or.
not only … but also
•Not only must be completed by but also, not just but.
•Oral means spoken. Verbal pertains to words.
•Over means above. More than means a greater number.
•Principal is a head or director. Principle is a rule of conduct or fundamental law.
•A pronoun should agree in number with the noun to which it refers. Example – A student plans his or her class schedule. Not – A student plans their class schedule.
•Use that in restrictive subordinate clauses (those necessary for the meaning of the sentence. Example – The house that they had decided to buy was green. (Do not use commas to separate the clause from the rest of the sentence because it is integral to the meaning.)
•Use which in non-restrictive subordinate clauses (those that are not essential for the meaning of the sentence). Example – The front door, which had beautiful leaded glass, led into a large foyer where the committee members had gathered. (Use commas to separate the clause from the rest of the sentence to indicate that the information is peripheral to the meaning of the sentence.)
•Always use toward.
•Spell out when used as a noun. Use U.S. (no space) only as an adjective, e.g., U.S. Court of Appeals.
voice (active vs. passive)
•Use the active voice in the vast majority of cases. Example – I heard the knock on the door. Not: The knock on the door was heard by me.
•Use the passive voice when you do not know the actor or when you do not want to assign responsibility to an individual. Example – The decision was made by the CEO.
•Write out numerals zero through nine.
•For 10 and greater, use numerals except when they begin a sentence. Write out numbers that begin a sentence although you can usually deal with long numerals less awkwardly by recasting the sentence so the number isn’t the first word.
•For thousands, use comma. Example – 3,000; 250,000.
•For millions, billions, use figures in all but the most casual uses. Example – I wish I had a billion dollars. Otherwise, e.g., $5 billion, 3 million immigrants.
•Round numbers based on the level of interest and use of the information by readers.
•Write whole dollar amounts without .00. Example – $12.
•Spell out and hyphenate in text. Example – one-third, one-half.
•Use numerals and percent (no space) for percentages. Example – 20 percent.
•For fractional percentages, use decimals not fractions. Example – 2.5 percent.
•Use amount when indicating a quantity that cannot be assigned an exact number. Use number for countable items.
fewer/number – less/amount
•Use fewer and number to designate items that you can count, less and amount to indicate quantity that you cannot enumerate. Example – fewer marbles but less sand.
•Use number when indicating a countable quantity. Use amount to indicate a quantity that cannot be counted.
•A paragraph is one complete unit of thought. A reader or a writer in the edit mode should be able to identify the subject of the paragraph. A writer should check for paragraph unity very carefully while editing.
•Generally, the first sentence of a paragraph announces the topic and scope of that paragraph. The rest of the sentences support or prove the topic sentence using details, examples, logic and analogy. You can view the topic sentence as telling, the support sentences as showing.
•Academic writing is generally formal and tends to use long paragraphs because of the complexity of ideas and the fine discriminations that characterize scholarly thought and expression. In academic writing, there is either a professor reading a student’s paper or academic specialists reading each other’s work.
•This audience situation generally does not exist in other writing situations. Especially in publications (because of the generally narrow columns), it is a good idea to paragraph for the eye as well as the thought because long, uninterrupted blocks of text can intimidate a reader. This is especially true in Web publications.
•Other situations that call for less formal organizational communications, such as memos, tend to have short paragraphs.
•Writers can control the length of paragraphs by how they cast ideas in the topic sentence and by breaking up paragraphs at natural divisions.
•When naming people – faculty, alumni, students – use full name and middle initial in first reference, if possible. Omit middle initial if the person is publicly known without it. Example – Dan Quayle ’69. The exception in published text is references to sports figures. In this case, use publicly known name without middle initial. On second and subsequent reference, use last name only.
•Alumnus: male singular reference.
•Alumna: female singular reference.
•Alumnae: female plural reference.
•Alumni: male plural and collective plural reference.
•Alumni/ae: Class year indicated by apostrophe and final two numbers in graduation year. Example – George T. Franklin ’68.
•For alumni who attend DePauw but do not graduate, DePauw assigns a class year four years after their entering year unless they explicitly request to be considered a member of another class. There is no ’x designation at DePauw as there is at some universities.
•Alumnae: Include maiden and married name. Example – Jean Smith Johnson ’34 – not Jean Johnson DPU ’34 or Jean B. Smith Johnson 1934.
chairman, chairwoman, chair
•Prefer the non-gender-specific chair. Note: follow same rules as academic titles for capitalization. Example – Jennifer L. Smith, associate professor and chair of the history department.
•Do not use courtesy titles: Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., Dr., in publications. Use them in correspondence.
•However, The AP Stylebook stipulates use of Dr. in first reference to a medical doctor in published text. The use of Dr. to designate other medical specialties (dentistry, optometry) and holders of the Ph.D. is acceptable in correspondence, but not in published text.
•The AP Stylebook uses Dr. only for medical doctors.
•Abbreviate as Jr. and Sr. only with full names of persons. Do not precede by a comma. Example – John M. Smith Jr. ’74
•Try to avoid references that might be interpreted as sexist, e.g., man, mankind. Instead, use terms such as humanity or people.
•In copy for publication, refer to a professor’s official rank in first reference. Example – Leslie R. Matthews, assistant professor of biological sciences.
•Do not use Dr. in text for publication. It is acceptable in correspondence.
•Do not list academic degrees following a professor’s name.
•Never abbreviate professor.
•An apostrophe indicates omitted letters or numbers.
•An apostrophe replaces the omitted figures in decades. Example –’60s.
•Use an apostrophe to designate a DePauw graduate’s year of graduation. Example – Joan B. Smith ’68.
•Use an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree and master’s degree.
•Use curly (not straight) typographer’s apostrophe.
•Use a comma before a conjunction introducing an independent clause: Example – He left by the front door, and then he opened the garage.
•Do not use a comma to separate a compound predicate. Example – He left by the front door and then opened the garage.
•In text, when city and state are used, put a comma between city and state and a comma after the state. Example – He came from Decatur, Ill., to Chicago.
•Before “and” in a series, generally omit the serial comma. Example – buildings, roads and bridges … Include the serial comma only when necessary for clarity. Example – I had juice, toast, and ham and eggs
•Use a comma to separate nonrestrictive clauses from the rest of the sentence. Example – The house, which is located on 17 acres, is 12 miles from town.
•Do not use a comma to separate restrictive clauses from the rest of the sentence. Example – The house that faced west was warmer in the afternoon.
•Use commas to set off nonrestrictive clauses. Example – The path, which was shaded, led me straight home. The logic is to use commas to separate elements of a sentence that are not essential to its meaning.
•Use a dash to indicate and, e.g., faculty-staff (faculty and staff). Use a slash to indicate or, e.g., his/her (his or her).
•Treat dashes like words that require a space before and a space after. They are used to set off parenthetical material that deserves emphasis. Example: He had completed his final paper – unlike most of his classmates.
•Use an ellipsis to indicate the deletion of one or more words in quotes, texts and documents. Make sure deletion doesn’t distort the meaning.
•Treat ellipses as three-letter words, constructed with three periods and one space before and after periods. If the ellipsis takes the place of a sentence, there is a period at the end of the sentence, a space, three periods and another space. If the ellipsis takes the place of words within a sentence, the form is space, three periods, space.
•Avoid hyphenating the word DePauw; never DeP-auw.
•Check the dictionary for first reference on whether to hyphenate compound words or not. Generally, hyphenate compound words that aren’t joined when used as adjectives before nouns. On-campus programs, but students on campus this semester; full-time student, but the student is full time.
•Do not hyphenate compound modifiers that include an -ly word, e.g., nationally known composer.
•Between two words, a hyphen means and, e.g., work-study; a slash means or, e.g., pass/fail.
•Use italics to designate longer publications, such as books, plays, names of newspapers and magazines, and movies and television shows. Generally, quotation marks designate shorter works, such as poems and songs. Eschew underlining in text or letters.
•Use italics or quotation marks to set off a word you are discussing or explaining. Avoid, however, setting off an informal expression that the reader will already know. “If you use a colloquialism or a slang word or phrase, simply use it; do not call attention to it by enclosing it in quotation marks. To do so is to put on airs, as if you were inviting the reader to join you in a select society of those who know better.” (Strunk and White, The Elements of Style)
•When no city is cited, write out state names in text for publication.
•In published text, when including city and state, abbreviate the state name.
•In all text, use AP style for state abbreviations following city names:
•In all text for publication, spell out the names of the eight states that are not abbreviated: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas and Utah.
•Use official U.S. Postal Service abbreviations (IN, IL, TX) only for addresses with zip code included. Never use U.S.P.S. abbreviations in publication text.
•State abbreviations are not necessary with large cities for which there can be no confusion: Atlanta, Chicago, New York City, etc.
•It is not necessary to use Ind. after a city for which there can be no confusion, e.g., Indianapolis (not Indianapolis, Ind.); Fort Wayne (not Ft. Wayne, Ind.).
•Abbreviate Indiana when used with a town that might not be familiar to the reader or with a city that could refer to another state, e.g., Columbus, Ind.
For the World Wide Web and references to digital communication in text, the reference of choice is The AP Stylebook. Following are basic terminology and usage, as well as DePauw-preferred style.
Blackboard Learning System
Full name is capitalized, as is the colloquial Blackboard (one word).
Uppercase B, lowercase r, hyphenated. Abbreviation is BD.
dial up (verb)
•Compact disc, CD-ROM (compact disc – read-only memory), laserdisc and videodisc spelled with “c”
•Computer hard and “floppy” disk spelled with “k”; lower case
DVD: Digital Video/Versatile Disc
Always capitalize all three letters.
One word, not capitalized
In text, manage end-of-line splits at natural divisions in address: Space after periods or slashes so that initial part of address fills first line and does not leave a large space in the text.
One word, capitalized.
capitalize, no hyphen.
•Capitalize as a noun (name of the service).
•Do not capitalize when used as a verb (to google).
•Hyphenated and lower case.
•Capitalize the H if it begins a sentence.
One word, not capitalized.
One word, not capitalized.
login, logon, logoff
One word, not capitalized, but use as two words in verb form: I log in to my computer.
Always capitalize in reference to Internet.
One word, not capitalized, not hyphenated.
One word, not capitalized, not hyphenated.
Capitalize, no periods; encompasses Macintosh in generic usage but not in more specific, technical references.
One word, not capitalized.
Do not capitalize.
•Capitalize Twitter (name of the service).
•Do not capitalize "tweet" as a noun or verb (to tweet).
One word, lower case.
World Wide Web
DePauw University Business Card Guidelines
A DePauw business card may be the first contact that an off-campus constituent has with the University. As such, it is one of the primary means of establishing and/or reinforcing the graphic identity/brand of DePauw University at the most personal level. Since it often provides the first impression of DePauw University, all representatives of the University will use the official University business card design, ink colors and stock.
When ordering business cards, contact the DePauw Purchasing Office or send your request directly to Greencastle Offset Printing & Graphics. Greencastle Offset works with the DePauw Publications Office to create all business cards within the approved graphic guidelines. Greencastle Offset is located at 20 S. Jackson St., Greencastle. The phone number is 653-4026; fax number is 653-7471.
DePauw University Letterhead and Envelope Guidelines:
The official DePauw letterhead* is the primary means of establishing and/or reinforcing the graphic identity/brand of the University at the personal level. Since it often provides the first impression of DePauw University, all general or admission/recruitment correspondence addressed to persons outside the University will be printed on the official University letterhead.
The letterhead must visually relate to other applications of the DePauw University graphic identity. The focal point of the identification on the letterhead is the DePauw University logo. All other information is secondary (office/department name, address, phone number, etc.). DePauw letterhead may be ordered with the generic University address, or it may be ordered with specific office/department information. No individual names/titles will be printed on the letterhead. Blank matching second-sheet stock is available for correspondence that exceeds one page.
• When duplicate copies of a letter are needed, keyboard the text on a plain white sheet of paper and take that to DePauw Printing Services. They can then run the copies directly on the letterhead stock.
Business/No.10 envelopes in matching stock, with the DePauw logo in upper left corner, are to be used for this type of correspondence. The envelopes may be used with the generic DePauw University return address, or they may be imprinted with a specific office/department’s return address.
• If a special mailing would benefit from a promotion line of copy on the envelope, e.g. “Special Invitation Enclosed,” please contact the Publications Office to assist in preparing the file for the printer.
When ordering generic University letterhead, envelopes or blank second-sheet stock, contact the Purchasing Office. When requesting letterhead and envelopes with specific office/department information, contact the Publications Office.
*There is no electronic version of the DePauw letterhead. Because the letterhead is such an important visual representative of the University, and because electronic files can be manipulated and distorted, an electronic letterhead cannot guarantee the consistent, professional image that a printed sheet provides.
DePauw University Logo:
The DePauw LOGO is trademarked and, as such, is subject to stringent guidelines for use. Other DePauw words/logos that are trademarked include: DePauw University, DePauw 361 Degrees, DePauw Tigers and the University seal.
Please contact the Publications Office for electronic files and specific guideline information. Either call ext. 4629 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Electronic File Submission
Consult with the Publications Office when undertaking a new publication. A conversation with one of the publications office writers can be beneficial in defining the purpose of and audience for the piece. Whether preparing new copy or revising a publication, following these guidelines will also save time and money and help you achieve the best results. Contact the Publications Office for instructions in preparing copy for printed jobs requiring minor (or major) copy revisions before submitting copy. See copyright policy below.
1.All new copy begins with a keyboarded version of the project. Keep the formatting simple:
•Provide a basic single-spaced, single-column, MS Word document; type only one space in a row – even after periods or commas.
•Use one tab for paragraph indents. Do not set up with auto indents.
•Use only one tab at a time. Do not use multiple tabs to align a column. NEVER use tables or cells to set up columns of copy. NEVER use the space bar to align copy in columns, indents, etc.
•Type only one return at the end of a paragraph. Do not use hard returns at the end of every line. Do not worry about line breaks – these will be adjusted in page layout.
•Turn off hyphenation and use ragged right/left justified alignment – do not use justified alignment.
•Type all copy in upper and lower case – even if you want something to be all capitals: mark this instruction on your hard copy.
•Do not use boxes, icons, elaborate headers and footers, color, shading, pull quotes and so forth. Undoing special formatting is extra work. Save yourself and the designers the extra work, and keep it simple. Mark special instructions on your hard copy.
•Do not submit Excel or Word files with tables, cells or embedded graphics.
2.Save and submit electronic files as MS Word files on CD, 3 1/2” floppy disk or e-mail. Do not submit PDF files. Make a backup copy of your file.
3.Make sure that electronic files and hard copy match exactly. If electronic files don’t match the hard copy, we don’t know which one is the version that we are supposed to edit and layout.
4.For large documents, provide separate documents for each section. Large files are cumbersome to manipulate.
1. Provide artwork electronically in a separate file or files (e.g., TIFF, JPG).
•Do not embed images in the text. Provide the highest possible resolution of art. Art typically looks better on a computer screen than in print, so something can look fine on a screen and look bad in print. Photos should be at least 300 dpi, and scanned line drawings should be 1,200 dpi.
2.Obtain any necessary permissions for use of copyrighted material. You must get permission from the other publisher to reprint any table, photo or other artwork or to excerpt large portions of text.
•Nondigital photographs: submit glossy prints only. Color slides are acceptable. Color photocopies are not acceptable.
•Digital photographs: images can be scanned by our office, or the following submission guidelines for digital photos can help to reduce problems in the design and printing process. Submit separate files for artwork (do not solely embed with text files).
•Line art: Scan at 1200 dpi
•Photographs: Scan at 300 dpi, save as highest quality .tif or .jpeg.
•Black and white files: scan in grayscale mode, not halftone
•Acceptable software: Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop
•Embedded graphics files in Word are not accepted
•Images pulled from a Web site are not acceptable (resolution is only 72 dpi).
Glossary of Image/Graphics Terms
•EPS (Encapsulated PostScript): an image format that uses PostScript language. EPS is used for storing vector graphics and bitmap images. The files are normally used for combination artwork or for charts and graphs. Generally, an EPS file can only be edited with the software program that created it.
•DPI (Dots Per Inch) or PPI (Pixels Per Inch). The resolution of an image or how many pixels are defined in the boundary of a square inch. The more correct term is pixels per inch, but dots per inch is often used instead.
•GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): An image format generated specifically for computer use. Its low resolution (72 dpi) makes it unusable for printing purposes.
•JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group): a standards committee that designed an image compression format. This is a common standard on the Web, but the data loss generated in its compression makes it less undesirable for printing purposes.
•PDF (Portable Document Format): an Adobe technology format created to facilitate electronic distribution of documents. This is a document converted into a special coded file that can be displayed and/or printed without the original application program.
•TIFF (Tagged Image File Format): A type of image file format that can include color or grayscale information. The quality of the image is determined by its resolution. Once the resolution has been determined by scanning or saving in a graphics software package, it cannot be upgraded or increased to improve quality.
Many faculty members consider options of providing reprints to students of various chapters, articles, pictures, and other materials as part of the materials for their courses. While there are several different options from which you may choose, it is important to observe the regulations with regard to copyrights. In this note and with the advice of our University experts on these matters, ( review some of the legal options and point out a few options which are not allowed.
It is important to note that we face several competing pressures. As creators of material, particularly images and written work, we are acutely aware of the intellectual property rights of the creator to ownership of those creations and to rights of fair compensation for the use of those materials by others. At the same time, as teachers and scholars, we wish to have wide access to materials for research and for study by our students. We also are well aware of the high cost of education and of educational materials (books, in particular) and hope to minimize those costs.
Any one of the following options meets the appropriate tests of legal use of copyrighted material and fair compensation for the holder of the copyright.
1) Preparing a course pack to be printed at DePauw Printing Services in the Union Building basement after obtaining copyright permissions through a provider such as the Copyright Clearance Center. Department secretaries are the resource people for pursuing this option. Such copies should be sold to students through the University Bookstore.
2) Preparing a course pack to be printed through XanEdu, a commercial printing organization which also obtains the copyright permissions as part of its services. These are then sold through the University Bookstore. For more information, you can contact XanEdu through the University Bookstore or XanEdu Customer Service at 1-800-218-5971 ext. 6553.
3) Ordering a course pack prepared by Fine Print Printing in Greencastle which has satisfied the University that its practices of obtaining copyright permissions and paying copyright fees meet the provisions of the copyright act and intellectual property laws. These should then be sold to students by Fine Print Printing.
4) Library Reserves (print or electronic) generally allow one-time use of copyrighted print or electronic copies and continuing use of links to licensed content through electronic subscription. Repeat use of unlicensed copies will incur copyright fees. For large numbers of reserve materials, you may wish to consider a course pack (see above) for student convenience.
Not all materials require permission. There are several categories of materials that you can freely use for your students and courses:
* Physical items already owned by the library (books!), or even a faculty member's personal copies can always be placed on print reserve without permission.
* Materials in the "Public Domain" are either offered freely by the author, or the copyright term has expired. The library can help you determine the public domain status of an item.
* US Government Documents are free to use and do not require permission (your tax dollars at work!).
* There are also items freely available through association memberships, web sites and a variety of avenues. If you need help determining the copyright status of an item, please let us help you. For more information on library reserves, please visit
After careful investigation, we have concluded that the following options are not likely to be deemed legal in a court test and may not be used by DePauw faculty members, as they would place both DePauw and individual faculty members at the risk of legal liability for the violation of copyright:
a) Photocopying materials at DePauw or through DePauw Printing Services without obtaining copyright permissions for students and distributing them in class, unless this effort meets the fair use provisions of the copyright act. These provisions allow "last minute" copying but prohibit repeated use of the same material under this provision in succeeding years or courses. They also prohibit using this option if there is/was time to obtain and pay appropriate copyright fees. With the advent of on-line permissions and payments, it is hard to argue that there is ever an emergency use of copyrighted materials in a course for which one could not obtain permission and pay appropriate fees.
b) Commissioning a local printer to make copies of materials for you or the printer to distribute and or sell to your students without obtaining copyright permissions.
c) Utilizing a service from a local printer in which a single set of copies is left by the faculty member and students are then instructed to order and pay for single copies made by the printer. Careful investigation by DePauw representatives finds this sort of commercial service a direct violation of the copyright act.
d) Repeat posting of electronic copies of copyrighted material on a class web site. That is, posting material one time satisfies fair-use provisions of the copyright act. Posting the same material a second time does not. As an alternative, you may always post a link to materials for which DePauw purchases an electronic subscription.
Faculty members and other DePauw employees are expressly forbidden to act knowingly in violation of the copyright act as such actions may bring legal liability onto the University as well.
If you have any questions about how to work most effectively to provide students legal access to copyrighted materials, please visit the Reserves website at www.depauw.edu/library/howto/putonreserves.asp or contact Mandy Henk (email@example.com), Access Services Librarian, or Rick Provine (firstname.lastname@example.org), Director of Libraries.
Thank you for your assistance and cooperation.
Neal B. Abraham
July 17, 2008